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  • Time of issue:2021-09-01 16:05:33
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Spacecraft Thermal Control: Taming the "Ice" and "Fire" of the Sky

For spacecraft traveling in space, the alternating heating and cooling of the sun, planetary radiation, and the cold and dark background of the universe will cause drastic changes in the high and low temperatures of the spacecraft, and the spacecraft will have to face "ice" and "fire" throughout its life. test.

In order to ensure the normal and safe operation of the spacecraft, it is necessary to scientifically control the temperature of the spacecraft so that it "does not have a fever or catch a cold." Spacecraft thermal control technology is the key to achieving this goal,By rationally organizing the heat exchange process inside and outside the spacecraft, the temperature of each part of the spacecraft is always within the range required by the mission, and it provides a good temperature environment for the normal operation of all the spacecraft equipment.

Up to now, spacecraft thermal control researchers have developed a variety of passive and active thermal control equipment including thermal control coatings, heat pipes, thermally conductive fillers, electric heaters, fluid circuits, shutters, etc., successfully solving various spacecraft Temperature control issues for long-term work in space.

However, only an external thermal control design is not enough. The hard-working spacecraft also needs to adjust the internal temperature accurately. Similar to the body temperature regulation system of the human body, thermal control researchers can use a fluid circuit to establish a circulatory system in the spacecraft.

The pipeline of the circuit is like a human blood vessel, the driving pump is like the human heart, and the working fluid in the pipeline is like the blood in the human body. When the movement of the spacecraft increases and the temperature of the equipment tends to be high, the fluid loop will circulate faster, and the fluid pipelines all over the body collect the heat emitted by the equipment and transport it to the heat dissipation surface of the spacecraft, and dissipate it into space. When the temperature of the spacecraft's equipment tends to be low, the thermal control system will adjust the flow of the working fluid in the pipeline in the body, slow down circulation, reduce heat dissipation, and maintain its own temperature.

In the manuals of thermal control researchers, measures that do not require electrical energy input, such as spray coating and coating with multi-layer thermal insulation materials, belong to passive thermal control of spacecraft, while designs that require electrical energy such as thermal control fluid circuits belong to aerospace. The device has active thermal control.

There are many other measures for passive thermal control and active thermal control, and the design of spacecraft thermal control is far more simple than these two methods. The control measures are reasonably designed and effectively used to ensure the comfort of the spacecraft in the harsh space environment and protect the spacecraft from flying safely in the sky.